Nanophotonics and plasmonics is the study of light at the nanometre-scale. Light can only be focused to a spot roughly half its wavelength in size (a few hundred nanometres for visible light). This limit can be surpassed by coupling light to electrons at the surface of a metal and creating surface plasmons.


This project targets an emerging area of ultrathin structures, named metasurfaces, which provide an avenue to replace the bulk optical components (like lenses, spiral phase plates, waveplatesetc) with 2D nanostructures. Development of such 2D metamaterials promises intriguing applications like compact 3D displays, flat imaging/focusing lenses and miniaturized solar cells etc. The main focus of this project is to investigate new possible materials for metasurfaces (which not only provide an alternative to expensive novel metals but also exhibit elevated performance in terms of efficiency) and develop fabrication processes.


Biophotonics is the science of generating and harnessing light (photons) to image, detect and manipulate biological materials. Biophotonics is an emerging area of scientific research that uses light and other forms of radiant energy to understand the inner workings of cells and tissues in living organisms. The approach allows researchers to see, measure, analyze and manipulate living tissues in ways that has not been possible before.
Biophotonics is used in Biology to study and probe for molecular mechanisms, function of proteins, DNA and other important molecules. It is used in Medicine to study tissue and blood at the macro (large-scale) and micro (very small scale) organism level to detect, diagnose and treat diseases in a way that are non-invasive to the body.
Examples of biophotonics in biology and medicine include:
• New laser microscopes that allow measurements of single molecules and tissues at unprecedented resolutions,
• New light-activated chemicals that can be used to weld tissues for surgical applications and to label important proteins,
• Widely tunable ultrafast laser sources, which provide access to molecular dynamics and structure, and;
• Optical coherence tomography, which allows visualization of tissues and organs.


Microwave photonics is an interdisciplinary area that studies the interaction between microwave and optical signals, for applications such as broadband wireless access networks, sensor networks, radar, satellite communications, instrumentation, and warfare systems.The major functions of microwave photonics systems include photonic generation, processing, control and distribution of microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signals. . In general, the topics covered by microwave photonics include photonic generation of microwave and mm-wave signals, photonic processing of microwave and mm-wave signals, optically controlled phased array antennas, radio-over-fiber systems, and photonic analog-to-digital conversion


Energy technology is concerned with developing systems capable of producing, transporting and delivering energy in a way that is safe, economical and, increasingly, environmentally-friendly. Generally speaking, it is a field of many overlapping disciplines. Hard sciences, such as physics and chemistry, are crucial to understanding where energy may be available. Engineering disciplines are required to design the systems that harness energy. Finally, environmental science is used to measure the impact of energy technology on the natural world.